"With advanced treatments and procedures, Myeloma can be controlled thus increasing the life span."


Overview

What is Multiple myeloma?


It characterized by the new plastic proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin. It is a B- Cell malignancy whereby the plasma cells are increased and abnormal antibodies are produced.


One type of White Blood Corpuscle is plasma cells. Plasma cells produce antibodies to fight infection and these cells are produced in the centre of the bones known as bone marrow and in the case of Multiple Myeloma the bone marrow makes an identical high number of plasma cells. And all these cells produce one type of antibody which is not capable of fighting infection. Since the bone marrow has crowed with these abnormal plasma cells there is no space to produce normal cells. Since the growth of normal cells is suppressed.

Symptoms

 

Majority of Multiple myeloma cases are reported with Bone pain about 60%


Other symptoms include:


  • Fatigue
  • Occasionally renal involvements
  • BONE LESIONS
  • Anaemia
  • High creatinine
  • High calcium
  • Weight loss

Diagnosis

 

Multiple myelomas are usually diagnosed with blood and urine test. Imaging studies of the skeletal system – PET CT & MRI are also required based on the inputs given by the treating physician.


A bone marrow test is suggested by the Physician.


Staging of Multiple Myeloma.


The staging is based on simple blood tests such as albumin and Beta 2 microglobulin, LDH and genetic reports.


Multiple myeloma is unlike other cancer.


3 stages of Multiple Myeloma :


  • Stage 1: Early in the disease, no symptoms.
  • Stage 2: The cancer is progressing and causing multiple symptoms.
  • Stage 3: Cancer is in multiple parts of the body and a person will experience complex symptoms.

Is Multiple Myeloma Curable?


According to the research and case studies, it has been found that there is no curable treating option for Multiple Myeloma, but with the advanced treatments and procedures, the disease can be controlled thus increasing the life span.


Survival rates based on staging. Higher the stage, survival is less compared to the early stage. But with the modern rate, the survival rate is improved. Bone Marrow Transplants can double survival chances compared to standard therapy.


Treatment

 

Most bone tumour patients do not have any known risk factors however there is a range of risk factors for bone cancer, including genetics. People with long term inflammatory diseases, such as Paget’s disease, are at an increased risk.


Other risk factors for developing bone cancer include:


  • Drugs-There are various drugs used for treating Multiple Myeloma. The main drugs are steroids, immune-modulating agents and combinations of medications- tablets and injections.
  • Antibodies are sometimes used
  • Prednisone inhibitors
  • Stem cell transplantation
  • Occasionally chemo
  • Rarely may need radiation therapy

Complications of Myeloma

 

  • Infection risk
  • Bleeding risk
  • Not responding to drugs
  • Bone fracture
  • Cot compression

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